This allows attributes and userid to be sent in the request to the API along with all typical SAML parameters. If you want you can also choose to secure some with OpenID Connect and others with SAML. Former HCC members be sure to read and learn how to activate your account here. You may be seeing this page because you used the Back button while browsing a secure web site or application. FromBase64_Decode(Char* startInputPtr, Int32 inputLength, Byte* startDestPtr, Int32 destLength). Example Outbound SAML Assertion from SmartOffice. Changing it to UTF-8 can be a good choice, as this format is commonly used for encoding all over the web and thus their visitors won’t have any troubles with symbol transcription or reading. The steps of processing the SAML response are illustrated below. Find and Install SAML SP Single Sign On – SSO login. That wraps up steps 2 and 3. Base64 Decode Online is very unique tool to decode Base64 data. Hello Folks, I have a user who is constantly getting the below error message when logging in. SendSSO to send a SAML response to the SP. But, on my assertion page, how can I get the SAML response and validate the the user? I can see the response using developer tool but how can I get it using c#? What I have tried: I tried printing the values from SAMLResponse querystring parameter (I found this somewhere after googling. The SAML component is fully compliant with the OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language v1. HTTP Redirect bindings make use of HTTP GET requests and the URL query paramaters to transmit protocol messages. The SAML Service Provider (SP) is a SAML entity that is deployed by the service provider. > This was done by Deflate encoding and then base 64 encoding a SAML > authentication > request to the IdP(Redirect binding). Status Message="" Status Code="Responder" We assume this is because we have to tell our ADFS how Splunk signs the request, but we are unable to find out which certificate Splunk uses for this. Performing Access Token Introspection. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4. Visual Guard 2019 R2 will add the support for oAuth2 and SAML 2. HTML/Oct/Hex Decoder This tool will attempt to revert any type of encoding (including Hex, html, Oct, etc). Load Base64, get XML. Messages sent in this manner are also URL and Base-64 encoded before being sent and decoded by the receiver. Use this tool to deflate and base64 encode a SAML Message before sending it. xml file must be configured similarly to the picketlink. Wildfly is now ready with keycloak-saml adapter. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is digitally signed using JSON Web Signature (JWS). SAML 2 SSO profile is not configured for relying party. There are four basic types of certificate manipulations. For worldwide interoperability, URIs have to be encoded uniformly. It works now. SAML protocol uses the base64 encoding algorithm when exchanging SAML messages. A Flask app uses a secret key to sign the session cookie so that the client can't modify it. Free online Base64 to XML converter. With that being said I have a request to generate a 'SignatureValue' for a SAML XML. If enclosed in a SAML Response, the Assertion MAY inherit it’s signature from the Response per SAML Core 5. Base64 Encode Base64 Decode Base64Url Encode Base64Url Decode SAML Encode SAML Decode Pretty JSON Quoted-Printable Encode. MD5Online offers a free and fast tool to generate an MD5 hash from a word of your choice. > This was done by Deflate encoding and then base 64 encoding a SAML > authentication > request to the IdP(Redirect binding). 3 library has been used in the following example to process the SAML Response received at the backend. Login to our administration portal and in the SAML settings check you have entered the correct SingleSignOnService > Location (from your metadata xml file) in the SAML SSO URL field. Thanks a lot for your help!. 0 Authentication Handler in AEM. RFC 5878 TLS Authorization Extensions May 2010 to this document. Do not use this version other than for historical reference purposes. Refer my update on this - SAML : Encoding / decoding a trace Refer Using Fiddler to trace a SAML IDP Request from ADFS 2. b64decode(). If you'd like to have the URL Decoder/Encoder for offline use, just view source and save to your hard drive. In many cases you need to see what is in the SAML messages even if you have no access to the servers log files. We are getting an interesting error form Shibboleth 3. By default, anonymous requests are not handled, so indeed the SAML 2 profile is not configured in that case. Both SPs and IDPs can transmit. Maniagnosis: A Post. saml_tot_dht_put_success - Total number of successful DHT puts. A very popular way to encode binary data is Base64. HTML/Oct/Hex Decoder This tool will attempt to revert any type of encoding (including Hex, html, Oct, etc). 0 Building Block along with common Single Sign-On (SSO) issues and troubleshooting techniques for the SAML authentication provider. SAML allows organizations to centrally manage authentication policies, so allowing social login could circumvent that policy. If you intercept a SAML Message, you will turn it in plain-text through base64 decoding. Base 64 image encoder. Our system also found out that Idp-google. Keycloak supports both OpenID Connect (an extension to OAuth 2. :param request_data: The request as a dict:type: dict:return: The url. This chapter describes the Oracle Access Management OAuth Services API. " while testing shibb From: Remi Mayrand-Provencher Date: 2015-07-22 19:59:23 Message-ID: 55AFF61B. Jun 18, '19 in General. Refer my update on this - SAML : Encoding / decoding a trace Refer Using Fiddler to trace a SAML IDP Request from ADFS 2. Can you please disable decryption, till we get this working? I do not see a way to disable the decoding. This allows attributes and userid to be sent in the request to the API along with all typical SAML parameters. This may be academic now, as CRM 2011 handles workflows differently and even upgrades v4 workflows into the new XAML format, but the uidata string, once base64 decoded is simply a serialized Microsoft. HTML/Oct/Hex Decoder This tool will attempt to revert any type of encoding (including Hex, html, Oct, etc). But I still can't understand why to set the character encoding of the string stored in my ckstring object again. Unable to capture variables in SAML response body using Jmeter-3. From the spec, for HTTP-Resirect binding, the SAMLRequest is DEFLATE-compressed, then Base 64 encoded, then URL encoded. Config) button and a text box will be displayed that contains a string to be copied and pasted into both your service provider's web. A chrome developer tools extension for viewing SAML messages in chrome A chrome developer tools extension for viewing SAML messages in chrome. 0 Profiles specification [SAML2Prof]. There are a couple of ways to base64 encode data, none of which are delivered. The only time CRT and CER can safely be interchanged is when the encoding type can be identical. As stated in the SSTC charter, the purpose of the Technical Committee is:. Encoding is a word I am sure most of us would have come across. Just load your Base64 and it will automatically get decoded to XML. Images containing bloat will be obscured with a "brick wall" based on the percentage of the file. 0 to PB applications. In a web browser-based SSO system, the flo= w can be started by the user either by attempting to access a service at th= e service provider, or by directly accessing the identity provider itself. Login to our administration portal and in the SAML settings check you have entered the correct SingleSignOnService > Location (from your metadata xml file) in the SAML SSO URL field. When functioning as an identity provider, Populi accepts incoming authentication requests and provides a login page. The steps of processing the SAML response are illustrated below. I also had to comment out the code in > the IdP that sends out a inresponseto attribute in the SAML response. 0 SP Init API supports the SAML 2. Re: certutil - decode/encode BASE64/HEX strings. In session 6 of the screenshot below we see that the SAML response was returned to the web browser from Azure. I do this in Python for decoding the SAMLRequest to get the AuthnRequest. 4 version on stage env ( Ubuntu 16. This document is an OASIS-Draft and is (for the most part) in conformance with relevant OASIS SSTC document standards. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Wildfly is now ready with keycloak-saml adapter. You can still take a look, but it might be a bit quirky. Performing Access Token Introspection. 61 Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) assertions from the 62 header block defined by the WS-Security specification. The following code examples show how to use java. HTML/Oct/Hex Decoder This tool will attempt to revert any type of encoding (including Hex, html, Oct, etc). XML Encoding. Decode a string that has been url encoded. The basis of this is an encoding table. It also uses a = character at the end of a string to signify whether the last character is a single or. AD FS Help makes it easy for you to navigate even complex scenarios using the guided troubleshooting walkthroughs and diagnostic tools. 0 = Profiles specification. 1 when authenticating to Workday. Paste a deflated base64 encoded SAML Message and obtain its plain-text version. The process of 'HTML decoding' involves undoing a previous 'HTML encoding', replacing particular 'escape sequence' of characters with their normal representation. PowerShell Encoding & Decoding (Base64) Securing Windows Workstations: Developing a Secure Baseline; Securing Domain Controllers to Improve Active… Finding Passwords in SYSVOL & Exploiting Group… The Most Common Active Directory Security Issues and… Kerberos & KRBTGT: Active Directory’s… Building an Effective Active Directory Lab…. A standard PEM has a begin line, an end line and inbetween is a base64 encoding of the DER representation of the certificate. If you look at the two code samples, you'll see that they operate on byte arrays. Security Assertion Markup Language or SAML is the secure XML based communication standard for communicating identities, exchanging authentication and authorization data between parties. Use this guide to enable Multi-Factor Authentication to F5 BIG-IP, and to encode the user password in Base64 and include it in the SAML response to enable F5 BIG-IP to decode it for SSO use in backend resources. In this article, you learn about the issuance and validation of JWT with firmware v 7. Shibboleth used this attribute in a manner analagous to the SAML 2 NameFormat attribute that took its place, and defaults to using a URI constant we defined in the very earliest releases to signal that the AttributeName would be a URI and stand on its own. The SAML SSO URL you entered is incorrect. Thanks a lot for the quick answer. 5 LTS ) , i have 1LS with redis , 2 ES as data nodes and 1 Kib with ES as master. Preparation is similarly cumbersome, with the steps done in reverse. ) then there is no format and the only way to decrypt is to know what algorithm was used, along with other params such as cipher mode, IV, padding scheme, etc. This usually indicates a metadata problem, which results in the IdP assigning the incoming request to the category of an "anonymous" relying party. 0 token, the contents will be encrypted and then converted to a base 64 string). XML Encoding. This chapter includes the following topics: Using REST in Standard 3-Legged OAuth Services Flows. xml? Also, according to the testshib configure page, the only changes needed are in metadata-provider. > the decoded SAML content properly(the original content of the SAML) > Sounds like you think you have the token encoded in Base 64 when you really don't and then you decode it anyway and get garbage that you feed to the parser. Use this Certificate Decoder to decode your PEM encoded SSL certificate and verify that it contains the correct information. The term Base64 originates from a specific MIME content transfer encoding. 0 capable Identity Providers to securely authenticate the user to the WordPress site. XSLT Functions for Base64 Encode and Decode. Config) button and a text box will be displayed that contains a string to be copied and pasted into both your service provider's web. I think the post only decode the message but doesn't not inflate it. (SQL Server) Decrypt a SAML Response. The message have been deflated and base 64 encoded. Paper SAS1385-2015 Federated Security Domains with SAS® and SAML Mike Roda, SAS Institute Inc. b64decode(). If you intercept a SAML Message,you will turn it in plain-text through base64 decoding. public enum SamlExceptionStatus Failed to decode SAML message. In many cases you need to see what is in the SAML messages even if you have no access to the servers log files. saml_base64_decode_fail - Issue while trying to base64 decode SAML data. A CSR is signed by the private key corresponding to the public key in the CSR. This website uses cookies to improve your experience and to serv personalized advertising by google adsense. 509 (SSL) certificate, Certificate Authorities, Cross certificates, bridge certificates, multi-domain or SAN/UCC certificates, certificate bundles and self-signed certificates. Refer my update on this - SAML : Encoding / decoding a trace Refer Using Fiddler to trace a SAML IDP Request from ADFS 2. The SAML Assertion MAY be enclosed in a valid SAML Response. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. In session 6 of the screenshot below we see that the SAML response was returned to the web browser from Azure. This handles setting the various parameters you mentioned, signing the SAML response or assertion, encoding and posting the message etc. and decoding that token using Base64. 1 Retrieve and pass around http Authorization header maven/ant/java export osb config jar from the sour Java Web Service Resource Injection Fails on JMS C Use WSLT to set OSB 11g security authorization pol osb/config/sessions directory; Eclipse creates Java Web service client with. " while testing shibb From: Remi Mayrand-Provencher Date: 2015-07-22 19:59:23 Message-ID: 55AFF61B. 0 Building Block along with common Single Sign-On (SSO) issues and troubleshooting techniques for the SAML authentication provider. AD FS Help provides simple, effective tools in one place for users and administrators to resolve authentication issues fast! Authentication issues can be very complex. This website uses cookies to improve your experience and to serv personalized advertising by google adsense. 1 profiles are fully supported, acting as either the identity provider or service provider. A chrome developer tools extension for viewing SAML messages in chrome A chrome developer tools extension for viewing SAML messages in chrome. 203 in Section 2 and following. For example, you can now use CloudTrail to identify a SAML federated user who terminated an Amazon EC2 instance in your AWS account, or to identify a mobile application user who has. salesforce saml bearer oauth flow I am also url encoding the grant type and the assertion. I used Fiddler to get the HTTPS packet containing the SAML response, decoded it to get the SAML response XML. This means that encoding and decoding a file is as simple as this:. In session 6 of the screenshot below we see that the SAML response was returned to the web browser from Azure. For that, I'm using base64 template function. The maximum number of components in the DECODE function, including expr, searches, results, and default, is 255. SAML uses the Deflate compression algorithm then base64 encodes the result. Of course this file is not encrypted (when the data is returned as a SAML 2. I had some trouble trying to let base64_decode decode base64-strings longer than ~5k chars. You must complete the following general steps in order to configure the SAML system to generate digital signatures: A signing key pair (SKP) must be generated or imported into the system and stored in eDirectory TM. Base64 Encoding for PeopleSoft This week on the ittoolbox peopeltools-I forum , I ran across a question on base64 encoding binary data using PeopleCode. XSLT Functions for Base64 Encode and Decode. From the spec, for HTTP-Resirect binding, the SAMLRequest is DEFLATE-compressed, then Base 64 encoded, then URL encoded. LearnCenter generates a SAML authentication request, and sends a redirect to the browser for the request to be submitted to Customer’s SSO URL. The SAML conformance document [SAMLConform] lists all of the specifications that comprise SAML V2. Use this tool to URL encode and decode a SAML Message GET parameter. SAML is a specification which defines messages and their format, message encoding methods, message exchange protocols, and other recommendations. However, when I try to use that method for matching against SAML requests of type "REDIRECT", it doesn't work. · Using the SAML receiver on the J2EE Engine. If the client is unauthenticated (does not have a valid NSC_TMAA or NSC_TMAS cookie), the SP redirects the request to the SAML Identity Provider (IdP). The formatting rules are not configurable but it uses a per-element indentation pattern giving the best readability. Former HCC members be sure to read and learn how to activate your account here. Input a string of text and encode or decode it as you like. Rosenberg and Remy are security experts who co-founded GeoTrust, the #2 Web site certificate authority. TechSmith supports single sign-on (SSO) authentication through SAML 2. 61 Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) assertions from the 62 header block defined by the WS-Security specification. 0 from your Plugins page. Base64 encoder/decoder. References 64 Introduction. ive got the SAML assertions for the sub-segments served by localhost:8080 signing nicely, and self-verifying under RSA PKCS (see note 2). The message have been deflated and base 64 encoded. Maniagnosis: A Post. In a web browser-based SSO system, the flo= w can be started by the user either by attempting to access a service at th= e service provider, or by directly accessing the identity provider itself. I need to decode a base64 payload in my OSB proxy service. Performing Access Token Introspection. This attack occurs when XML input containing a reference to an external entity is processed by a weakly configured XML parser. Click the Generate Auth Settings (for Web. saml_tot_dht_put_fail - Total number of. But I expected to input the text in right encoding as used by the string itself. MIME does not specify a fixed length for Base64-encoded lines, but it does specify a maximum line length of 76 characters. Even the old SAML 2 SSO Profile is not enabled for blah blah was a little better than this because it kinda sorta pointed where to go. · Using the SAML receiver on the J2EE Engine. You may be seeing this page because you used the Back button while browsing a secure web site or application. Secure Transparent Sign-On is available for Glance Panorama, Glance Screen Share, Glance Device Casting, and Glance Cobrowse. XML Formatter. Paper SAS1385-2015 Federated Security Domains with SAS® and SAML Mike Roda, SAS Institute Inc. Steps of use are: After app start, select input and output files for conversion, then click "Do it", application will inform you of success or failure. If you want you can also choose to secure some with OpenID Connect and others with SAML. Messages sent in this manner are also URL and Base-64 encoded before being sent and decoded by the receiver. HTML Encoding is a way of ensuring text will be accurately shown by a browser. x Web Admin Glossary. Although transferred via the browser the base64 and sometimes zipped content is not directly readable. By default, XML values are encoded as unicode characters, but you can right-click an element and choose XML Encoding> Unicode or ASCII or. Very useful for webmasters trying to identify what a specific code is doing (from WordPress themes/plugins or Joomla templates). Adding AD FS Authentication with AD FS and SAML. Getting Identity Tokens. 0 identity provider (IdP) can take many forms, one of which is a self-hosted Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) server. XML External Entity Attack(XXE) in SAML based SSO application An XML External Entity attack is a type of attack against an application that parses XML input. Use this tool to URL encode and decode a SAML Message GET parameter. Paste a deflated base64 encoded SAML Message and obtain its plain-text version. Current claim settings:. You will typically find that other implementations will require you to override this with. HTTP POST bindings send messages via form data and also do a base-64 encode/decode on the message. Part 3 of this tutorial series focuses implementing a service provider initiated single sign-on (SSO) to Salesforce using IBM® WebSphere DataPower (hereafter called DataPower) as an identity provider, powered by a signed SAML assertion. But I expected to input the text in right encoding as used by the string itself. If the client is unauthenticated (does not have a valid NSC_TMAA or NSC_TMAS cookie), the SP redirects the request to the SAML Identity Provider (IdP). Created by Anshul, for fellow linguists and emoji fans. -- Xavi Drudis Ferran [email protected] Digital signature validation, which verified authenticity and integrity of the assertion embedded in SAML document. This chapter includes the following topics: Using REST in Standard 3-Legged OAuth Services Flows. Paste the text to encode/decode below. View, Transform, Combination , and Extraction. Use Base64 encoding to send PDF files or images in a SOAP message. Open up the certificate on a notepad, and copy the blob minus the begin certificate and end certificate. Do not use this version other than for historical reference purposes. In a DECODE function, Oracle considers two nulls to be equivalent. B2C tries to read this SAML response and says "Root element is missing". Configure sales-post-sig against testshib. SAML Request: REDIRECT: POST: Decoder. I also had to comment out the code in > the IdP that sends out a inresponseto attribute in the SAML response. There are a couple of ways to base64 encode data, none of which are delivered. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Use this tool to base64 encode and decode a SAML Messages. But to how validate them? Like identity cards, they contain a number of attributes, or claims. Python string method decode() decodes the string using the codec registered for encoding. The "cool" way to do base64 decode with OSB 11. I am able to send SAML request to SF, SF is able is able to process it succesfully (I see Status=Success in Identity Provider Event Log) and send back SAML response. When a user tries to access a protected application, the SP evaluates the client request. JSON Web Token (JWT) - Claims and Signing draft-jones-json-web-token-01 Abstract. Activate miniOrange SSO using SAML 2. This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. 509 survival guide and tutorial. OAM 11g Single Sign-On and OAM 11g Cookies This post is part of a larger series on Oracle Access Manager 11g called Oracle Access Manager Academy. Encode and Decode inline strings from any page by selecting and right clicking on the selection. Parsing the XML document, which includes structure validation based on supplied schema; 2. What to Do with the Base64-Encoded SAML Response Once you find the Base64-encoded SAML response element in your browser, copy it and use your favorite Base-64 decoding tool to extract the XML tagged response. You can still take a look, but it might be a bit quirky. HTML Encoding is a way of ensuring text will be accurately shown by a browser. I have the x. If the Assertion or the NameID are encrypted, the private key of the Service Provider is required in order to decrypt the encrypted data. Parsing the XML document, which includes structure validation based on supplied schema; 2. Flask Session Cookie Decoder This is a simple Python script to decode Flask session cookies. salesforce saml bearer oauth flow I am also url encoding the grant type and the assertion. The formatting rules are not configurable but it uses a per-element indentation pattern giving the best readability. Figure 1 and Figure 2 represent a high level overview of this solution. Use this tool to base64 encode and decode a SAML Messages. Visual Guard 2019 R2 will add the support for oAuth2 and SAML 2. Base64 Encoding for PeopleSoft This week on the ittoolbox peopeltools-I forum , I ran across a question on base64 encoding binary data using PeopleCode. For worldwide interoperability, URIs have to be encoded uniformly. Performing Access Token Introspection. Decode HTTP Basic Access Authentication 23 Mar 2014 Mohamed Ibrahim HTTP Basic Access Authentication is a simple challenge and response mechanism to enforce access controls to web resources. The SAML SSO URL you entered is incorrect. I think the post only decode the message but doesn't not inflate it. Decoding to SAML from encoded XML String. There are no ads, popups or nonsense, just an awesome Base64 to XML decoder. Binary data is represented as an ASCII string. As Marco mentioned, the latter allows to manage both Authentications and Authorizations, so I guess it depends on your security requirements. By default msfvenom does not have base64 encoder for powershell script. Re: certutil - decode/encode BASE64/HEX strings. 0 SP Init API supports the SAML 2. System : Linux 64. Encode and Decode inline strings from any page by selecting and right clicking on the selection. Get Attributes and NameID from a SAML Response. If you intercept a SAML Message, you will turn it in plain-text through base64 decoding. saml_large_post - Post body size is more than what we look for. Once you find the Base64-encoded SAML response element in your browser, copy it and use your favorite Base-64 decoding tool to extract the XML tagged response. This post applies to SOA suite 11. This document defines the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). 0 Service Provider which can be configured to establish the trust between the plugin and a SAML 2. What do you think are some changes to do in attribute-filter. 0 capable Identity Providers to securely authenticate the user to the WordPress site. 1 when authenticating to Workday. Hello I'm testing the ELK 6. Can specify the validity of a SAML assertion. The SAML Identity Assertion provider processes valid SAML 1. World's simplest UTF8 decoder. Outline • Authentication! • What is an identity federation?! • Two use-cases:! • eduroam - WiFi global roaming! • SURFconext - Web SSO! • focus on (federated) authentication. Use this tool to deflate and base64 encode a SAML Message before sending it. It is an encoding. Figure 3: The output from our Base64 decode test. Learn about the SAML 2. Binary data is represented as an ASCII string. Net, once you figured out which class libraries you needed to combine. This chapter describes the Oracle Access Management OAuth Services API. Base64 class. 0 SP Init API supports the SAML 2. Here are both of those files : Attribute-filter. [METADATA-DIFF] Production-Production Diff, InCommon Operations, 07/23/2015 [METADATA-DIFF] Production-Production Diff , InCommon Operations, 07/24/2015 Archive powered by MHonArc 2. SAML uses the Deflate compression algorithm then base64 encodes the result. If you request any page below the configured path without a valid login-token, the requested path is stored in a cookie and the browser will be redirected to this location again after successful authentication. integrity for such cases. securitydomain? Yes, we need to reconcile this issue. Total number of times the session index is greater than 64 bytes. I need to verify that a base64 encoded string was associated with a specific user SID. Paste a plain-text SAML Message and obtain its deflated and base64 encoded version. Javascript Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) support in Apache CXF - part III. The term Base64 originates from a specific MIME content transfer encoding. HTTP POST bindings send messages via form data and also do a base-64 encode/decode on the message. I recently had the need to convert simple strings back and forth from Base64 encoding. This allows attributes and userid to be sent in the request to the API along with all typical SAML parameters. SAML 2 SSO profile is not configured for relying party. Both SPs and IDPs can transmit. This chapter includes the following topics: Using REST in Standard 3-Legged OAuth Services Flows. Example Outbound SAML Assertion from SmartOffice. SAML Request: REDIRECT: POST: Encoder. Good point, I've changed the SS64 description. RFC 5878 TLS Authorization Extensions May 2010 to this document. Handy for turning encoded JavaScript URLs from complete gibberish into readable gibberish. Site Login - Ping Identity. org/idp/profile/SAML2/POST/SSO). xml, as shown below, and placed at application’s WEB-INF. SecureAuth IdP 9. Wildfly is now ready with keycloak-saml adapter. Abstract: This profile is a replacement for the X. Security Tip Because the SAML response data that you are viewing might contain sensitive security data, we recommend that you do not use an online base64 decoder. But to how validate them? Like identity cards, they contain a number of attributes, or claims. If you want you can also choose to secure some with OpenID Connect and others with SAML. TIBCO API Exchange Gateway provides the following XSLT functions: Installing Apache HTTP Server on Windows 64-bit. SAML - Perl extension for using SAML SSO. URL Encode and Decode Tool. An instance of mapping SAML request-.